Difference Between Dictionary and Hashtable

A guy asked me the other day, what is the difference between a Dictionary and a Hashtable?  I found myself stumbling a bit so I thought it would a good topic for me to write about and help me understand further.  A Dictionary is a generic type Dictionary<TKey, TValue> that allows static type which gets verified at compile-time as well as you can use a Dictionary without boxing.  I am finding that using a Dictionary in .Net 2.0 and above is the preferred way to go.

A Hashtable is not a generic type and requires boxing when you are dealing with value types.  A nice perk to using a Hashtable is that it allows multiple reader threads with one reader thread making a Hashtable thread safe where a Dictionary does not offer thread safety.  Another difference is that in a Dictionary when you request a non-existing key an exception will be thrown.  However, when you request a non-existing key in a Hashtable; a null is returned.

There is an alternative in .Net 4.0 for a Dictionary that is called ConcurrentDictionary<TKey, TValue>.

Here is an example of a simple ConcurrentDictionary from MSDN http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd287191.aspx.

class CD_Ctor
        // Demonstrates: 
        //      ConcurrentDictionary<TKey, TValue> ctor(concurrencyLevel, initialCapacity) 
        //      ConcurrentDictionary<TKey, TValue>[TKey] 
        static void Main()
            // We know how many items we want to insert into the ConcurrentDictionary. 
            // So set the initial capacity to some prime number above that, to ensure that 
            // the ConcurrentDictionary does not need to be resized while initializing it. 
            int NUMITEMS = 64;
            int initialCapacity = 101;

            // The higher the concurrencyLevel, the higher the theoretical number of operations 
            // that could be performed concurrently on the ConcurrentDictionary.  However, global 
            // operations like resizing the dictionary take longer as the concurrencyLevel rises.  
            // For the purposes of this example, we'll compromise at numCores * 2. 
            int numProcs = Environment.ProcessorCount;
            int concurrencyLevel = numProcs * 2;

            // Construct the dictionary with the desired concurrencyLevel and initialCapacity
            ConcurrentDictionary<int, int> cd = new ConcurrentDictionary<int, int>(concurrencyLevel, initialCapacity);

            // Initialize the dictionary 
            for (int i = 0; i < NUMITEMS; i++) cd[i] = i * i;

            Console.WriteLine("The square of 23 is {0} (should be {1})", cd[23], 23 * 23);

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